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Vietnam  >  Ethnic group in Vietnam

54 ETHNIC GROUPS IN VIETNAM

 

Vietnam is the homeland of many nationalities. All are descendants of Lac Long Quan and Au Co, hatching out of a hundred eggs, half of them following their mother to the mountain, the other half accompanying their father to the sea. They joined hands to build the nation from "Three mountains, four seas and the land mass", with endless forests and mountains, delta plains stretching as far as the eyes can see and the Eastern Sea rippling Is waves all the four seasons. It is a land stretching from the high peak of Lung Cu (north) to the hamlet of Rach Tau (south) and from the Truong Son Range (west) to the Truong Sa archipelago (east).

Market life
Pho cao market
Ethnic Group

Living together in one country from time immemorial, all the nationalities develop a tradition of patriotism and unite and assist mutually in the conquest of nature and in social struggle, throughout the historic process of national construction, defence and development.

The history of the conquest of nature is really an epic, manifesting the creative innovation, vitally, determination to surmount all obstacles, adaptability to natural conditions of each ethnic group to produce, subsist and develop. People of various nationalities have found out different patterns to cope with nature, appropriate to specific natural geographical conditions.

In the lowland and mid-land regions, people work the ricefields to grow wet rice and build village culture on the background of communal houses, wells, banyan trees and green bamboo groves. The delta plain, agriculture, villages and hamlets constitute a source of inspiration for the making of multipanel robes, rose-coloured bodices and hats with fringed chin strap, for the composition of folk songs, love duets and folk verses familiar with specific regions.

In the mountain areas, people grow wet rice in valleys, develop terraced fields for dry crops, especially corn, and begin to plant perennial trees such as anise and cinnamon, in replacement of natural forests. They live in houses built on stilts, wear trousers or jupes and indigo vests with design motifs imitating wild flowers and beasts. It is their habit to drink can (bamboo pipes) wine from jars.

In the northern uplands and the Central Highlands, people clear and burn jungle patches as a method of farming in the pre-industry age. With a sub-tropical climate, cultivation is chiefly carried out in summer and autumn. For acclimatization and the raising of land utility rate, the highlanders from time immemorial have developed multi-cropping to generate further income and prevent soil erosion. With their dexterity and sense of aesthetics, the young women have made skins and vests with beautiful and colourful decorations and in a style convenient to farming work in terraced fields and to traved on hill slopes and mountain gorges. The generous forests and mountains and backward farming methods give rise to mythical rituals with propitious conditions for their development. Almost all regions in the Central Highlands hold buffalo-stabbing ceremonies in honour of Giang (Heaven) to pray for health, for the good of livestock breeding and for bumper crops. These regions harbour innumerable legendary stories and gallant chronicles, the value of which is comparable to those of China and India but their collection and study are still inadequate. These ethnic minorities are the creators of stone xylophones, T'rung and Krongput musical instruments, sets of gongs and group dances, rich of community colours.

Along the coastline from north to south, people live on fishing. In the morning fishing boats sail out to the open sea and in the evening return to the shore. The life here is bustling with activity as is in farming areas at harvest time.

Everywhere, man lives in harmony with nature and nature does not betray human efforts.

Lying in the Indochinese peninsular, the gateway to mainland and offshore Southeast Asia, Vietnam is the location of cultural intercourse in this region, with three major language families, I-e. Austro-Asian Language Family, Austronesian Language Family and Sino-Tibetan Language Family. The Vietnamese speak the languages of eight different groups. Of which the Viet-Muong Group includes four ethnic groups: the Chut, Kinh, Muong and Tho; the Tay-Thai Group includes eight ethnic groups: the Bo Y, Giay, Lao, Lu, Nung, San Chay, Tay and Thai; the Mon-Khmer Group includes 21 ethnic groups such as the Ba Na, Brau, Bru-Van Kieu, Cho-ro, Co, Co-ho, Co-tu, Gie-trieng, Hre, Khang, Khmer, Kho Mu, Ma, Mang, M'Nong, O-du, Ro-mam, Ta-oi, Xinh-mun, Xo-dang and Xtieng; the Mong-Dao Group includes the Dao, Mong and Pa Then; the Kadai Group includes the Co Lao, La Chi, La Ha and Pu Peo; the Malayo-Polynesian Group includes the Cham, Chu-ru, Ede, Gia-rai and Ra-glai; the Han Group includes the Hoa, Ngai and San Diu; the Tibeto-Burman Group includes the Gong, Ha Nhi, La Hu, Lo Lo, Phu La and Si-la.

Although they speak different languages, the ethnic groups live close to one another and so one group can know the language of others through everyday relations, and although they are involved in cultural exchange, they keep retaining the identity of their own culture. The diversity of the cultures of ethnic groups does not take them off the track of the common development of the nation, just as the peculiarity is in tune with the generality in the dual category of philosophy.

The Ho Chi Minh Era which started with the triumph of the 1945 August Revolution has brought about a great change in the life of the national community. The consistent policy put forth by the Party and State on nationalities boils down to equality, unity, mutual assistance and alliance in the building of the country for the prosperity of the people, for the might of the country, and for a just and a civilized society imbued with national identity.

The promulgation of this correct and innovative policy in the socio-economic field has yielded successes, very big, very new and very modern. The infrastructure, especially land communication, water resource and telecommunication, has reached the districts and gradually the villages and hamlets at a pace depending on the specific conditions of each region. As masters of the country, the ethnic groups are taking part in State organs of authority at an increasing rate. The Party and the State pay concern to the training of scientific and technical workers. The number of cadres of ethnic groups possessing university or higher degree is on the increase. The treasure of traditional culture and art of various ethnic groups has been collected, preserved, studied and promoted.

As a result of the successful promulgation of the Party policy on nationalities, people of various nationalities who have been working together in the cause of national construction and defense are strengthening their solidarity still further for the sake of national development. The achievements as mentioned above constitute the solid foundation for the consolidation of the block of great national union, for the improvement of the people's level of education and their living standards and for the advancement of all nationalities.

No

Group

Primary names

Other names

Local groups

Population

By
(1.4.1999)

By
(1.7.2003)

1 Băh nar Ba Na BơNâm, Roh, Kon Kđe, Ala Kông, Kpang Kông Rơ Ngao, Rơ Lơng (Y Lăng), Tơ Lô, Gơ Lar, Krem

174.456

190.259

2 Bố y Bố Y Chủng Chá, Trọng Gia... Bố Y và Tu Dí

1.864

2059

3 Brâu   Brao  

313

350

4 Bru-Vân Kiều Bru Bru, Vân Kiều Vân Kiều, Trì, Khùa, Ma Coong

55.559

62.954

5 Chăm (chàm)   Chàm, Chiêm, Chiêm thành, Chăm Pa, Hời... Chăm Hroi, Chăm Pông, Chà Và Ku, Chăm Châu Đốc

132.873

148.021

6 Chơ ro   Châu Ro, Dơ Ro, Chro, Thượng  

22.567

26.455

7 Chu ru   Chơ Ru, Kru, Thượng  

14.978

16.972

8 Chứt Chứt Rục, Arem, Sách. Mày, Rục, Sách, Arem, Mã Liềng

3.829

3.787

9 Co Cor, Col Cua, Trầu  

27.766

29.771

10 Cống Xám Khống, Phuy A    

1.676

1.859

11 Cơ ho Cơ Ho   Xrê, Nộp (Tu Nốp), Cơ Dòn, Chil, Lát (Lách), Tơ Ring.

128.723

145.857

12 Cơ lao Cờ Lao Tứ Đư, Ho Ki, Voa Đề. Cờ Lao Xanh, Cờ Lao Trắng, Cờ Lao Đỏ

1.865

2.034

13 Cơ tu Cơ Tu Ca Tu, Ka Tu  

50.458

56.690

14 Dao Kìm Miền, Kìm Mùn Mán Dao Đỏ, Dao Quần Chẹt, Dao Lô Gang, DaoTiền, Dao Quần trắng, Dao Thanh Y, Dao Làn Tẻn

620.538

685.432

15 Ê đê Anăk Ê Đê Anăk Ê Đê, Ra Đê, Ê Đê-Êgar, Đê Kpă, Adham, Krung, Mđhu, Ktul, Dliê, Hruê, Bih, Blô, Kah, Kdrao, Dong Kay, Dong Mak, Ening, arul, Hwing, Ktlê, Êpan

270.348

306.333

16 Giáy Giáy Nhắng, Giảng  

49.098

54.002

17 Gia Lai Gia Rai Giơ Ray, Chơ Ray Chor, Hđrung (gồm cả Hbau, Chor), Aráp, Mthur, Tơbuân

317.557

350.766

18 Giẻ-Triêng Gié, Triêng, Ve, Bnoong Cà Tang, Giang Rẫy Gié (Giẻ),Triêng,Ve, Bnoong (Mnoong)

30.243

31.343

19

Hà Nhì

Hà Nhì Già

U Ní, Xá U Ní

Hà Nhì Cồ Chồ, Hà Nhì La Mí, Hà Nhì Đen

17.535

 

19.954

20

 

Hoa (Hán)

 

  Khách, Hán, Tàu

 

Quảng Đông, Quảng Tây, Hải Nam, Triều Châu, Phúc Kiến, Sang Phang, Xìa Phống, Thảng Nhằm, Minh Hương, Hẹ...

862.371

 

913.248

 

21 H'rê Hrê Chăm Rê, Chom, Thượng Ba Tơ, Luỹ, Sơn Phòng, Đá Vách, Chăm Quảng Ngãi, Chòm, Rê, Man Thạch Bích.  

113.111

 

120.251

 

22 HMông (Mèo) Hmông, Na miẻo Mẹo, Mèo, Miếu Ha, Mán Trắng Hmông Trắng, Hmông Hoa, Hmông Đỏ, Hmông Đen, Hmông Xanh, Na miẻo

787.604

 

896.239
23 Kinh (Việt)   Kinh  

65.795.718

69.356.969

24 Kháng Mơ Kháng Háng, Brển, Xá Kháng Dẩng, Kháng Hoặc, Kháng Dón, Kháng Súa, Ma Háng, Bủ Háng, Ma Háng Bén, Bủ Háng Cọi

10.272

 

15.213

 

25 Khmer Khmer Cur, Cul, Cu, Thổ, Việt gốc Miên, Khmer K'rôm  

1.055.174

 

1.112.286

 

26 Khơ mú Kmụ, Kưm Mụ Xá Cẩu, Khạ Klẩu, Măng Cẩu, Tày Hạy, Mứn Xen, Pu Thềnh, Tềnh  

56.542

 

62.721

 

27 La Chí Cù Tê Thổ Đen, Mán, Xá  

10.765

12.095

28 La Ha La Ha, Klá Plạo Xá Cha, Xá Bung, Xá Khao, Xá Táu Nhạ, Xá Poọng, Xá Uống, Bủ Hả, Pụa La Ha cạn (Khlá Phlao), La Ha nước (La Ha ủng)

 

5.686

 

6.388

 

29 La Hủ La Hủ Xá lá vàng, Cò Xung, Khù Sung, Kha Quy, Cọ Sọ, Nê Thú La hủ na (đen), La-hủ sư (vàng) và La-hủ phung (trắng)

6.874

 

7.561

 

30 Lào Thay, Thay Duồn, Thay Nhuồn Phu Thay, Phu Lào Lào Bốc (Lào Cạn), Lào Nọi (Lào Nhỏ) 11.611 12.379
31 Lô Lô Lô Lô Mùn Di, Di, Màn Di, La Ha, Qua La, Ô man, Lu Lộc Màn Lô Lô hoa, Lô Lô đen

 

3.307

 

3.327

 

32 Lự Lừ, Thay, Thay Lừ. Phù Lừ, Nhuồn, Duồn Lự Đen (Lự Đăm), Lự Trắng (ở Trung Quốc)

4.964

5.553

33 Mạ Mạ Châu Mạ, Chô Mạ, Chê Mạ Mạ Ngăn, Mạ Xốp, Mạ Tô, Mạ Krung

33.338

36.824

34 Mảng Mảng Mảng Ư, Xá Mảng, Niểng O, Xá Bá O Mảng Gứng, Mảng Lệ

2.663

2.634

35 Mường Mol (Mon, Moan, Mual)   Ao Tá (Âu Tá), Bi

1.137.515

1.230.054

36 Mnông Mnông

 

  Mnông Gar, Mnông Nông, Mnông Chil, Mnông Kuênh, Mnông Rlâm, Mnông Preh, Mnông Prâng, Mnông Đíp, Mnông Bu Nor, Mnông Bu Đâng, Mnông Bu Đêh...

92.451

 

104.312

 

37 Ngái Sán Ngải Ngái Hắc Cá, Ngái Lầu Mần, Hẹ, Sín, Đản, Lê, Xuyến  

4.841

 

7.386

 

38 Nùng Nồng   Nùng Giang, Nùng Xuồng, Nùng An, Nùng Inh, Nùng Lòi, Nùng Cháo, Nùng Phàn Slình, Nùng Quy Rịn, Nùng Dín

856.412

 

914.350

 

39 Ơ đu Ơ Đu, I Đu Tày Hạt  

301

370

40 Pà Thẻn Pà Hưng Mèo Lài, Mèo Hoa, Mèo Đỏ, Bát tiên tộc...  

5.569

6.529

 

41 Phù Lá Lao Va Xơ, Bồ Khô Pạ, Phù Lá Xá Phó, Cần Thin

 

Phù Lá Lão-Bồ Khô Pạ, Phù Lá Đen, Phù Lá Hán.

9.046

 

8.947

42 Pu Péo Kabeo La Quả, Penti Lô Lô  

705

900

43 Răglai     Rai, Hoang, La Oang

96.931

108.442

44 Rơ-măm      

352

418

45 Sán Chay (Cao lan-Sán chỉ) Sán Chay

 

Hờn Bán, Chùng, Trại... Cao Lan, Sán Chỉ

 

147.315

 

162.031

 

46 Sán Dìu San Déo Nhín ( Sơn Dao Nhân) Trại, Trại Đất, Mán Quần Cộc, Mán Váy xẻ  

126.237

 

140.629

 

47 Si La Cù Dề Sừ Kha Pẻ  

840

1.006

48 Tày   Thổ Thổ, Ngạn, Phén, Thu Lao, Pa Dí.

1.477.514

1.597.712

49 Tà ôi   Tôi Ôi, Pa Cô, Tà Uốt, Kan Tua, Pa Hi ... Tà Ôi, Pa Cô, Pa Hi

 

34.960

 

38.946

 

50 Thái Tay, Thay Tay Thanh, Man Thanh, Tay Mười, Tay Mường, Hàng Tổng, Tay Dọ, Thổ Ngành Đen (Tay Đăm). Ngành Trắng (Tay Đón hoặc Khao)

1.328.725

 

1.449.084

 

51 Thổ Thổ Người Nhà làng. Mường, Con Kha, Xá Lá Vàng Kẹo, Mọn, Cuối, Họ, Đan Lai, Li Hà, Tày Poọng

68.394

 

76.191

 

52 Xinh mun Xinh Mun Puộc, Xá, Pnạ Xinh Mun Dạ, Xinh Mun Nghẹt.

18.018

21.946

53 Xơ-đăng Xơ Teng, Tơ Đrá, Mnâm, Ca Dong, Ha Lăng, Tà Trĩ., Châu Xê Đăng, Kmrâng, Con Lan, Brila.

 

Xơ Trng, Tơ Đrá, Mnâm. Ca Dong, Ha Lăng, Tà Trĩ, Châu.

 

127.148

 

140.445

54 Xtiêng   Xa Điêng, Xa Chiêng Bù Lơ, Bù Đek (Bù Đêh), Bù Biêk.

66.788

74.402

 

 

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